Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/... · What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (2023)

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (1)

Biological Mathematics: AGeneral DNA Splicing Model

Garret Suen

CPSC601.73

Wednesday, January 30, 2002

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (2)

Forward…

The following is a brief summary of a generalDNA splicing model system as outlined byLila Kari in her article:

DNA Computing: arrival of biologicalmathematics.

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What we’ve learned so far…

® So far, we’ve seen some basic DNA modelsfor computation as outlined by Adelman,and others.

® We have looked at a general proposed rule-set used to generate operations that can beused for computation.

® These proposed models can seemingly solvemany problems, including those of the NPvariety.

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Extending the Model

® The previous models all have one aspect incommon: The treat DNA as a static non-mutable data structure.

® In biology, however, DNA may exist inever-changing, non-static forms.

® Dynamically changing DNA serves as aform of protection in bacteria againstinvading bacteriophage DNA.

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Splicing in Nature

® Amongst higher-level organisms, most areinvaded by bacteria that can cause disease.

® Bacteria, are cellular organisms that cancause serious harm.

® At the same time, there are specificorganisms that can attack a bacteria andcause it serious harm.

® These are known as phages, and in specificbacteriophages.

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Bacteriophages and how the work

® Bacteriophages are parasitic organisms that attackbacteria (they are harmless to humans).

® They attack bacteria by injecting their DNA intothe bacteria.

® The phage DNA then incorporates itself into thebacterial DNA and force it to construct newphages.

® These new phages are then released to infect otherbacteria.

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Phage Life Cycle…

® Courtesy of:

http://www.web-books.com/MoBio/Free/Ch1F1.htm

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Fighting a Phage

® Just as we as humans have an immunesystem to fight off bacteria, bacteria havealso developed special mechanisms to fightoff phages.

® Most bacterial systems fight phages bytargeting phage DNA.

® If a bacteria can render phage DNAinoperable, then it really can’t do anythingto the bacteria.

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Restriction Enzymes

® Bacteria have developed specialized enzymes tofight against infecting phage DNA.

® These enzymes are known as RestrictionEnzymes.

® Restriction Enzymes can recognize specificsubsequences of DNA and cut them into pieces.

® This effectively renders the DNA inoperable as itcan not be transcribed and translated.

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So What?

® Restriction Enzymes have become vastlyimportant in Biotechnology over the years.

® The ability to cleave sequences of DNAhave led to the ability of producingimportant proteins such as insulin fordiabetes patients (recombinant DNA).

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How do they work?

® Restriction Enzymes work by recognizing aspecific sequence embedded into a DNAstrand.

® These sequences are usually 4-6 nucleotideslong.

® Each Restriction Enzyme has a specific cutsite, a site where it actually does the cutting.

® The cut site can be anywhere from position2 to 5 on a 6-nucleotide RestrictionEnzyme.

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Some Examples

® Here are some common examples of RestrictionEnzymes and their cut sites.

® Courtesy of: http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/R/RestrictionEnzymes.html

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Sticky Ends

® Once a Restriction Enzyme has cut a piece ofDNA, it produces two pieces of DNA.

® Each of the two pieces contain “sticky ends”where the Restriction Enzyme made its cut.

® These sticky ends may be a small (1-4) nucleotidesequence that are not base paired.

® These sticky ends are available to bind to othersuch sticky ends as long as they are complement(through the use of DNA ligase).

® Thus one can cross-join two strands of DNA usingthe same Restriction Enzyme.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (14)

Sticky Ends in Action…

® Courtesy of:

http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/R/RecombinantDNA.html

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (15)

A Splicing Model

® The use of restriction enzymes in bacteria issometimes referred to as a splicing model.

® Splicing is most commonly found inprocessing of mRNA before it is passed outof the nucleus for translation.

® Splicing is simply the removal of specificsequences within a DNA/RNA molecule.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (16)

Applying it to DNA Computation

® The ability to cut sequences of DNA andpaste complement sequences of DNAtogether allows us new operation to includeinto our DNA computational model.

® We call this a DNA splicing model.

® To define this system, we introduce aformal language to describe the splicingmodel.

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A Formal Language…

® Formal are useful for understandingcomplex systems by adding a level ofabstraction.

® For our purposes, we will abstract the DNAsplicing model into a formal language andshow how the cut and paste rules can workunder such a language.

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The Alphabet

® We define an alphabet as being: S (lookingone level down, we note that our alphabet issimply A, C, G, T).

® We can define words based on this alphabetby denoting that words are simplycatenations of our alphabet, called: S*.

® We also define that our language has a nullelement, or the empty string as: l.

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The Splicing Rule (I)

® Given some alphabet S and two string xand y over S, we can define a splicing ruler as follows:

– R consists of two steps:1. Cut x and y at certain positions.

2. Paste the resulting prefix of x with the suffix of yand the prefix of y with the suffix of x.

• From this we can say that a splicing rule rover S is a word of the form a1#b1$ a2#b2.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (20)

The Splicing Rule (II)

® We can say that z and w are obtained by splicing xand y according to the following splicing rule r =a1#b1$ a2#b2 as:

(x, y) Æ r(z, w)

If and only if:

x = x1 a1 b1x’1 z = x1 a1 b2y’2

Y = y1a2 b2y’1 w = y2a1 b1x’1

For some x1, x’1, y1, y’1 Œ S*

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (21)

The Splicing Rule (III)

® What we’ve outlined is a simple abstractionof the splicing rule that is found in DNA.

® The formal language definition simplyallows us to apply this splicing rule to anyalphabet that we chose to use.

® The Splicing Rule can be used to do avariety of operations such as addition (seepg.10-11 of the article).

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Defining a Splicing System

® Now that we have defined how a splicing rule works, wecan apply this rule to sets of alphabets.

® If a simple alphabet is used as a language (or a set), wenote that there are no restrictions to splicing and that:

1. The splicing sections x and y are not used up by thesplicing action, and are available to be used again.

2. There is no restriction on the number of copies of zand w that we obtain, as they can be easilyduplicated.

® However, we note that with DNA, this is not the case.® Only some DNA strands are available for use some of

the time, and in limited quantities.

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Splicing over Multisets

® To solve this issue, we introduce the idea of multisets.

® With multisets, we can keep track of the number of copiesof strands from moment to moment.

® With a multiset, we simply define sets for each givensplice application.

® Thus, from our splicing rules, we see that there is an initialset that consists of strands x and y ({x,y}).

® After the splicing rule has been applied, we get another setthat consists of strands z and w ({z, w}).

® With use of multisets we can keep track of what strandsare going where.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (24)

A Formal Splice System

® We define a multiset to be over S*.® We define M(w) as being a function of the

multiset that returns the number of copies of theword w in that multiset (in DNA there arepotentially an infinite amount of any give wordw).

® Definition: A splicing system is a quadruple g =(S, T, A, R), where S is an alphabet, T Õ S is theterminal alphabet, A is the multiset over S*, and RÕ S*#S*$S*#S* is the set of splicing rules.

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Splice System Characteristics (I)

® Given the previous definition, thefollowing holds:

1. M(x) ≥ 1, M(y) ≥ 1, if (x ≠ y) (resp. M(x) ≥ 2if x = y.– This simply states that there must be two viable

strands for splicing, x and y, and that there mustexist at least one copy of both x and y for splicingto occur. Respectively if strand x = y then itfollows that there must be at least two copies of x(or y) for splicing to occur.

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Splice System Characteristics (II)

2. (x, y) Æ r (z, w) according to the splicing ruler (defined above).

3. M’(x) = M(x) –1, M’(y) = M(y) – 1 if x ≠ y(resp. M’(x) = M(x) – 2 if x = y)– This simply states that the contents of the next set

of {x,y} will have two strands deleted from it, oneof type ‘x’ and another of type ‘y’ (as they havebeen spliced and joined to form new strands whichare now not part of the set {x,y}). Respectively, ifx = y then this set loses 2 strands both of type x.

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Splice System Characteristics (III)

4. M’(z) = M(z) + 1, M’(w) = M(w) + 1 if z ≠ w(resp. M’(z) = M(z) + 2 if z = w).- This simply states that the contents of the set of

{z,w} will have two strands added to it (the newstrands created from splicing), one of type ‘z’ andanother of type ‘w’. Respectively, if x = y thenthis set gains 2 strands both of type z (or w).

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (28)

Great, but how does this help?

® Generally speaking, splicing rules are simply anotheroperation that we can add to our programming tool box.

® They add a new level of flexibility, and allow us to cut andpaste parts of DNA, and ultimately, data from one memorystrand to another.

® It is postulated that a universal programmable DNAcomputer can be constructed based on splicing operations.

® The Cut and Paste aspect of splicing is very much akin tounion and intersection in set theory.

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Feasibility of DNA Computing

® One of the questions of DNA computingbeyond the theoretical aspect is whether ornot the operations outlined are feasible.

® Here we will outline some basics on DNAmanipulation techniques and theirfeasibility.

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Constructing DNA

® DNA synthesis is a relatively simple process that can bedone efficiently in a lab.

® You can tailor make a DNA strand by simply starting withthe nucleotide of your choice.

® This nucleotide is attached to a glass bead for a secureanchor.

® A solution of the next nucleotide in the sequence is addedto the test tube, and the nucleotides are allowed to anneal.

® Then you wash the solution free of excess nucleotides andrepeat the process with the next nucleotide of your choice.

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DNA Hybridization

® DNA hybridization is the process of taking twosingle strands of DNA and attempting to annealthe two together (if they are complementary).

® Generally, one can hybridize two strands of DNAby simply heating the mixture and changing thereaction conditions (salt concentration, etc).

® One must be careful however, in self-annealing,the process whereby a single strand of DNA willanneal to itself, forming hairpin loop structures.

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Hairpin Loops

® Hairpin loops are caused by complementarysections of nucleotides located on the same strand.

Courtesy of: http://www.mun.ca/biochem/courses/3107/Lectures/Topics/transcription.html

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Cleaving DNA

® We have seen that DNA can be cleavedrather easily through the use of RestrictionEnzymes.

® However, Restriction Enzymes are not100% error-free.

® Often times, partial digests of DNA occur.

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Ligating DNA

® Ligating is the process of attaching strands ofDNA together.

® This is done through the use of DNA ligase, anenzyme used primarily in DNA replication.

® One can attach complementary sticky ends createdby restriction enzymes together (pasting DNAtogether).

® While DNA Ligase is rather accurate, it is notperfect (leading to some mutations in DNA).

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Detection and Sequencing

® DNA detection and Sequencing is theprocess of determining the exact sequenceof a given DNA strand.

® This is done usually through gelelectrophoresis and such specializedtechniques as the Sanger Method for DNAsequencing.

® These methods are costly, time-consumingand not very reliable.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (36)

DNA Replication

® Done through the use of PCR.

® Relatively cheap and fast.

® Requires knowledge of the primer sequenceof a known DNA sequence.

® Not reliable past 10kb of amplification,although this is improving as better DNAPolymerases are being synthesized.

Biological Mathematics: A General DNA Splicing Modelpages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~jacob/Courses/Winter2002/CPSC601-73/Slides/...· What we’ve learned so far… ® So far, we’ ve seen - [PDF Document] (37)

Will we ever see a DNAComputer?® The theory of DNA computation is rather

sound.® The bottleneck, however, lies within the

ability of biotechnology to perform theoperations that we have discussed.

® As new techniques in biotechnologyemerge, it may be feasible to consider DNAcomputation as a reasonable alternative toconventional computation.

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